above ●●●●●
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above /əˈbʌv/ adverb, preposition

در بالا ، بالای سر ، نام برده ، بالاتر ، برتر ، مافوق ، واقع دربالا ، سابق الذکر ، مذکوردرفوق
کامپیوتر: بالا

[TahlilGaran] Persian Dictionary

Synonyms: over, beyond, exceeding, higher than, on top of, upon
Antonyms: below, infra

[TahlilGaran] English Synonym Dictionary

I. above1 S2 W1 /əˈbʌv/ adverb, preposition

1. in a higher position than something else Synonym : over Antonym : below:
Our office is above the hairdresser’s.
He had a bruise just above his left eye.
I heard a strange noise coming from the room above.
The great bird hovered high above our heads.

2. more than a particular number, amount, or level Antonym : below:
50 metres above sea level
above freezing/zero (=higher than the temperature at which water freezes)
Tonight, temperatures should be just above freezing.
and/or above
free medical care for pensioners aged 65 and above
Prize winners must have gained marks of 80% or above.
The salaries we offer are well above (=much higher than) average.

3. to a greater degree than something else:
Many employers value personality above experience or qualifications.
above all (else) (=used to say that something is more important than anything else)
Max is hard-working, cheerful, and above all honest.
medals awarded for bravery above and beyond the call of duty (=greater than it is your duty to show)

4. louder or clearer than other sounds:
You can always hear her voice above everybody else’s.

5. higher in rank, power, or importance Antonym : below:
He never rose above the rank of corporal.
and/or above
officers of the rank of Major and above
from above (=from people in higher authority)
We just obey orders from above.

6. formal before, in the same piece of writing Antonym : below:
As mentioned above, there is a service charge.
Write to the address above for further information.

7. not be above (doing) something to not be too good or honest to do something:
Eileen’s not above flirting with the boss when it suits her.

8. be above suspicion/reproach/criticism etc to be so good that no one can doubt or criticize you:
Even the king’s closest advisers were not above suspicion.

9. get above yourself to think you are better or more important than you really are
over and above at over1(14), ⇒ be above the law at law(13)

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. above2 W3 adjective
a) [only before noun] used in a piece of writing to refer to something mentioned in an earlier part of the same piece of writing:
For the above reasons, the management has no choice but to close the factory.
b) the above formal something mentioned before in the same piece of writing:
If none of the above applies to you, you may be able to reclaim tax.

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Contemporary English

DUBIOUS: Taking all the above into account, one could say that tourism does more harm than good.
GOOD: Taking all the above arguments into account, one could say that tourism does more harm than good.

Usage Note:
Instead of using the above as a loose reference to something mentioned earlier, make the reference more precise by using the above + noun (or the + noun + above ): 'the above reasons', 'the statement above '.

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Common Errors

BAD: He likes reading, above all novels.
GOOD: He likes reading, especially novels.

Usage Note:
Above all means 'most importantly': 'Get plenty of sleep, eat lots of good food, and above all try to relax.' 'There were many qualities that made him a great leader. Above all, he had charisma.'

BAD: There were above a hundred people in the crowd.
GOOD: There were over a hundred people in the crowd.

Usage Note:
Do not use above with numbers (unless referring to points on a scale): 'He is over eighty years of age.' 'I receive over twenty letters a day.' Compare 'Don't let the temperature get above thirty degrees.'

BAD: This year English is above all my most important subject.
GOOD: This year English is by far my most important subject.

Usage Note:
With a superlative form ('the most important'), use by far : 'The riot was by far the most horrific scene I'd ever witnessed.'

DUBIOUS: I like to stay at home on a Sunday, as I've said above.
GOOD: I like to stay at home on a Sunday, as I've already said.
DUBIOUS: What do you think of the above suggestion?
GOOD: What do you think of my/this suggestion?

Usage Note:
Above is used in formal writing to refer to something that has been mentioned earlier: 'From the above arguments it can be seen that supporters of the dam project fall into two camps.' In informal styles, this use of above is inappropriate.

BAD: Where would you like to go above all?
GOOD: Where would you like to go most of all?

Usage Note:
When you mean 'more than anywhere/anything/anyone else', use most of all or the most : 'What worries me most of all is that the car is not roadworthy.' 'The one I liked the most was too expensive.'

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Common Errors

TahlilGaran Online Dictionary ver 13.0
All rights reserved, Copyright © ALi R. Motamed 2001-2019.

TahlilGaran : دیکشنری آنلاین تحلیلگران (معنی above) | علیرضا معتمد , دیکشنری تحلیلگران , وب اپلیکیشن , تحلیلگران , دیکشنری , آنلاین , آیفون , IOS , آموزش مجازی 4.80 : 2108
4.80دیکشنری آنلاین تحلیلگران (معنی above)
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