after
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after /ˈɑːftə $ ˈæftər/ preposition, conjunction, adverb
after- /ɑːftə $ æftər/ prefix


پس از ، بعداز ، در عقب ، پشت سر ، درپی ، در جستجوی ، در صدد ، مطابق ، بتقلید ، بیادبود
after
[adverb]
Synonyms: following, afterwards, behind, below, later, subsequently, succeeding, thereafter
Antonyms: before
Contrasted words: ahead, forward, ante, ere, in advance of, preceding, prior to, antecedent, prior
Related Idioms: after a time (or while), in the wake of
Related Words: abaft, aft, astern
English Thesaurus: after, in, within, within a month/two weeks etc, 24 hours/a year etc from now, ...

[TahlilGaran] English Synonym Dictionary

I. after1 S1 W1 /ˈɑːftə $ ˈæftər/ preposition, conjunction, adverb
[Language: Old English; Origin: æfter]

1. when a particular event or time has happened, or when someone has done something Antonym : before:
After the war many soldiers stayed in France.
I go swimming every day after work.
Do you believe in life after death?
The first attack started just after midnight.
David went to bed straight after (=immediately after) supper.
After you’d called the police, what did you do?
Zimmerman changed his name after he left Germany.
People still remember the 1958 revolution and what came after (=happened after it).
after doing something
After leaving school, Mackay worked in a restaurant for a year.
two days/three weeks etc after (something)
Ten years after he bought the painting, Carswell discovered that it was a fake.
the day/week/year etc after (something) (=the next day, week etc)
His car was outside your house the morning after Bob’s engagement party.
I’ll see you again tomorrow or the day after.
She retired from politics the year after she received the Nobel Prize.
soon/not long/shortly after (something)
Not long after the wedding, his wife became ill.
The family moved to Hardingham in June 1983, and Sarah’s first child was born soon after.

2. when a particular amount of time has passed Antonym : before:
After ten minutes remove the cake from the oven.
You’ll get used to it after a while.
After months of negotiation, an agreement was finally reached.

3. following someone or something else in a list or a piece of writing, or in order of importance:
Whose name is after yours on the list?
The date should be written after the address.
After football, tennis is my favourite sport.
The UK is the world’s third largest arms producer, after the USA and Russia.

4. American English used when telling the time to say how many minutes have passed since a particular hour Synonym : past British English:
The movie starts at a quarter (=fifteen minutes) after seven.

5. day after day/year after year etc continuously for a very long time:
He’s worked in that same office week after week, year after year, since he was 18.

6.
a) following someone in order to stop or speak to them:
Go after him and apologize.
I heard someone running after me, and a voice called my name.
b) in the direction of someone who has just left:
‘Good luck,’ she called after me as I left.
Harry stood in the doorway gazing after her.

7. when someone has left a place or has finished doing something:
Remember to close the door after you.
I spend all day cleaning up after the kids.

8. because of something that happened earlier:
I’m not surprised he walked out, after the way she treated him.
After your letter, I didn’t think I’d ever see you again.

9. in spite of something that was done in the past:
How can you treat me like this after all I’ve done for you?

10. when you have passed a particular place or travelled a certain distance along a road:
Turn left after the hotel.
After a mile you will come to a crossroads.

11. be after somebody/something
a) to be looking for someone or something:
That boy’s always in trouble – the police are after him again.
‘Were you after anything in particular?’ ‘No, we’re just looking.’
b) informal to want to have something that belongs to someone else:
I think Chris is after my job.

12. one after another/one after the other if a series of events or actions happen one after another, each one happens soon after the previous one:
Ever since we moved here it’s been one problem after another.

13. after all
a) in spite of what you thought was true or expected to happen:
He wrote to say they couldn’t give me a job after all.
Union leaders announced that they would, after all, take part in the national conference.
b) used to say that something should be remembered or considered, because it helps to explain what you have just said:
Prisoners should be treated with respect – they are human beings after all.
I don’t know why you’re so concerned – it isn’t your problem after all.

14. especially British English used to say who or what first had the name that someone or something has been given:
His name is Alessandro, after his grandfather.
It was named Waterloo Bridge, after the famous battle.

15. formal in the same style as a particular painter, musician etc:
a painting after Rembrandt

16.
a) after you spoken used to say politely that someone else can use or do something before you do:
‘Do you need the copier?’ ‘After you.’
b) after you with something used to ask someone if you can have or use something after they have finished:
After you with that knife, please.
a man/woman after my own heart at heart(22), ⇒ take after at take1

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Contemporary English

II. after2 adjective [only before noun]

1. in after years literary in the years after the time that has been mentioned

2. technical in the back part of a boat or an aircraft

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Contemporary English

after- /ɑːftə $ æftər/ prefix
coming or happening afterwards Antonym : pre-:
an after-dinner speech
after-school activities

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Contemporary English

after
preposition
1.
BAD: After a week we're going to Italy.
GOOD: In a week's time we're going to Italy.
BAD: I hope that I'll still be healthy after ten years.
GOOD: I hope that I'll still be healthy in ten years' time.

Usage Note:
When you mention a time in the future that is measured from 'now' (the moment of speaking), use in a month's time, in three weeks' time , etc (or just in a month, in three weeks ): 'She'll be back again in a couple of weeks' time.'
Note the alternatives: 'A week (from) today we're going to Italy.' 'I hope that I'll still be healthy ten years from now.'

2.
BAD: First we got stuck in a traffic jam and then our car broke down. After all we decided to cancel the trip and went back home.
GOOD: First we got stuck in a traffic jam and then our car broke down. In the end, we decided to cancel the trip and went back home.
BAD: We stopped for a meal on the way and after all we didn't arrive until midnight.
GOOD: We stopped for a meal on the way and in the end we didn't arrive until midnight.

Usage Note:
FINALLY · IN THE END · EVENTUALLY · AT LAST · AFTER ALL · AT THE END
Finally and lastly are used (1) at the beginning of a sentence) to introduce the past point in a speech, reply, essay etc: ‘finally, I’d like to consider the economic arguments.’ ‘Lastly, I’d like to thank you all for coming and wish you a safe journey home.’ (2) to introduce the last action in a sequence of actions or the last thing in a list: ‘Finally, as soon as you hear a beep, press the start button.’ ‘She showed us the new dress, then the blouse, and lastly the shoes.
Finally and eventually are used to show that something happens after a long time or delay: ‘When the bus finally arrived it was full up.’ ‘Eventually the baby stopped crying and we managed to get some sleep.’
Eventually and in the end are used to introduce the result or outcome of something: ‘In the end United won by three goals to two.’ ‘It seems more and more likely that the human race will eventually destroy itself.’
At last means ‘after a long period of waiting or trying to do something’: ‘I’m pleased to hear that you are out of hospital at last.’ Unlike eventually, at last is often used in connection with the present situation, and expresses a sense of relief: ‘I can’t believe that we’re actually getting on the plane at last.’ ‘Do you mean that you’ve really stopped smoking at last?’
After all means ‘despite what was planned, expected or believed’: ‘We stayed at home after all and watched the match on television.’ ‘I’m sorry to hear that you won’t be coming to London after all.’ After all is also used to remind someone of a fact which they should consider: ‘I’m not surprised you’re tired. After all, you didn’t get any sleep last night.’ ‘Why are you so upset about losing? After all, it’s only a game.’
At the end At the end refers to the point where something finishes: ‘Their house is at the end of the road.’ ‘Do you remember what happens at the end of the film?’ Unlike in the end, at the end is usually followed by of : ‘at the end of the lesson/course/road/year’.

3.
BAD: I promised to meet Hitomi at the exhibition a week after.
GOOD: I promised to meet Hitomi at the exhibition a week later.
BAD: I returned to Germany after two years' time.
GOOD: I returned to Germany two years later.

Usage Note:
When you mention a time in the past that is measured from an earlier time in the past, use a month later, three months later, etc: 'Six months later they got married.'

4.
BAD: After 1961 the consumption of cheese has increased each year.
GOOD: Since 1961 the consumption of cheese has increased each year.

Usage Note:
To refer to a period of time that begins in the past and continues up to 'now' (the moment of speaking), use since (NOT after ): 'I've been standing here waiting for you since half past three.' 'She hasn't been to see us since she got married.'

5.
BAD: My first aim is to get a master's degree. After I would like to go and work in Canada.
GOOD: My first aim is to get a master's degree. Afterwards, I would like to go and work in Canada.
DUBIOUS: A police car arrived within minutes and soon after an ambulance came.
GOOD: A police car arrived within minutes and soon afterwards an ambulance came.

Usage Note:
After is used instead of afterwards only in informal styles, usually in phrases such as 'soon after', 'not long after' or 'just after'. Careful users generally prefer afterwards, especially at the beginning of a sentence: 'Shortly afterwards it was announced that the bank had collapsed.'
In American English after is often used instead of afterwards .

6.
DUBIOUS: A police car arrived within minutes and soon after an ambulance came.
GOOD: A police car arrived within minutes and soon afterwards an ambulance came.

Usage Note:
In informal styles, after is used in phrases such as 'soon after', 'not long after' and 'just after'. Careful users prefer afterwards , especially in formal styles: 'Shortly afterwards it was announced that the bank had collapsed.'
In American English after is often used instead of afterwards .

7.
DUBIOUS: I studied English for 2 years. After that I got a job as a stewardess on an American airline.
GOOD: After studying English for 2 years, I got a job as a stewardess on an American airline.
DUBIOUS: We could all meet at my house for lunch. After doing this, we could go to the beach.
GOOD: We could all meet at my house for lunch and afterwards we could go to the beach.

Usage Note:
The meaning 'then' can be expressed in a number of ways, e.g. afterwards, then, later on, subsequently, after + v-ing. Avoid the repeated use of after that and after doing this/that.

8.
BAD: After you will leave, we will write to you every day.
GOOD: After you leave/have left, we will write to you every day.

[TahlilGaran] Dictionary of Common Errors


TahlilGaran Online Dictionary ver 13.0
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